By Janet Holmes.
Contents Preface to Fourth version Preface to 3rd version Preface to moment version Preface to First version Author's Acknowledgements Publisher's Acknowledgements 1. What do sociolinguists learn? what's a sociolinguist? Why will we say an identical factor in several methods? What are different methods we are saying issues? Social components, dimensions and motives part I: Multilingual Speech groups 2. Language selection in multilingual groups selecting your type or code Diglossia Code-switching or code-mixing three. Language upkeep and shift Language shift in several groups Language dying and language loss elements contributing to language shift How can a minority language be maintained? Language revival four. Linguistic kinds and multilingual international locations Vernacular languages regular languages Lingua francas Pidgins and creoles five. nationwide languages and language making plans nationwide and legitimate languages making plans for a countrywide respectable language constructing a customary sort in Norway The linguist's function in language making plans part II: Language version: concentrate on clients 6. neighborhood and social dialects nearby edition Social version Social dialects 7. Gender and age Gender-exclusive speech alterations: non-Western groups Gender-preferential speech gains: social dialect examine Gender and social type factors of women's linguistic behaviour Age-graded positive factors of speech Age and social dialect information Age grading and language swap eight. Ethnicity and social networks Ethnicity Social networks nine. Language switch edition and alter How do alterations unfold? How will we learn language switch? purposes for language swap part III: Language version: specialize in makes use of 10. type, context and sign in Addressee as a power on type lodging conception Context, kind and sophistication kind in non-Western societies sign in eleven. Speech services, politeness and cross-cultural conversation The capabilities of speech Politeness and tackle varieties Linguistic politeness in several cultures 12. Gender, politeness and stereotypes Women's language and self assurance interplay Gossip The linguistic building of gender The linguistic development of sexuality Sexist language thirteen. Language, cognition and tradition Language and conception Whorf Linguistic different types and tradition Discourse styles and tradition Language, social category, and cognition 14. Analysing Discourse Pragmatics and politeness thought Ethnography of conversing Interactional sociolinguistics dialog research (CA) serious Discourse research (CDA) 15. Attitudes and purposes Attitudes to language Sociolinguistics and schooling Sociolinguistics and forensic linguistics sixteen. end Sociolinguistic competence Dimensions of sociolinguistic research Sociolinguistic universals References Appendix: phonetic symbols word list Index
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Extra resources for An introduction to sociolinguistics
Many rural Paraguayans are monolingual in Guaraní, but those who live in the cities are usually bilingual. They read Spanish literature, but they gossip in both Spanish and Guaraní. A study by Joan Rubin in the 1960s identified complementary patterns of language use in different domains. 3). This was useful though it still leaves considerable areas of language use unspecified. Faced, for example, in the countryside by a woman in a long black skirt smoking a cigar what language should you use? 3 Domains of language use in Paraguay Domain Addressee Setting Topic Language Family Parent Home Planning a family party Guaraní Friendship Friend Café Funny anecdote Guaraní Religion Priest Church Choosing the Sunday liturgy Spanish Education Teacher Primary school Telling a story Guaraní Education Lecturer University Solving a maths problem Spanish Administration Official Office Getting an import licence Spanish Source: This table was constructed from data provided in Rubin 1968.
The aim of any description is to represent the language patterns of the community accurately. If the model does not do that, it needs to be modified. The only limitation is one of usefulness. If a model gets too complicated and includes too many specific points, it loses its value as a method of capturing generalisations. 1 summarising the factors relevant to code choice for Kalala in Bukavu. Answer at end of chapter Models can usefully go beyond the social factors summarised in the domain concept to take account of social dimensions such as social distance (stranger vs friend), relative status or role (doctor–patient), degrees of formality (formal wedding ceremony vs lunchtime chat) and the function or goal of the interaction (getting a bargain).
1 illustrates the possibilities for communication when Kalala wanted to talk to a soldier who had recently arrived in Bukavu with his unit. Since he and his addressee share only one code or variety, standard Swahili, there is not much choice if he wants to communicate referential content (as opposed to, say, insult, abuse or admiration, where any variety could convey the affective message). 1 Two linguistic repertoires in the Democratic Republic of the Congo-Zaire Kalala’s linguistic repertoire Addressee’s linguistic repertoire Shi: informal style formal style Rega: informal style formal style Indoubil Lingala Kingwana Standard Zairean Swahili Standard Zairean Swahili Source: Based on Goyvaerts et al.