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By Fred Singleton

It is a moment version of the winning examine of Finland within the English language. a brief background of Finland strains the old improvement of the rustic from its cost by way of the Finns within the first millennium advert to the current time, exploring Finland's past reference to Sweden, the complicated courting with Russia that has ruled Finnish background some time past centuries, and the postwar achievements of the second one republic. This moment version has been revised and up to date through Emeritus Professor A. F. Upton, a number one pupil of Scandinavian heritage. It covers the influence of the break-up of the Soviet Union and brings occasions as much as Finland's admission to the eu Union in 1995.

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Extra resources for A Short History of Finland

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The Swedes were well entrenched in Finland when the rulers of Novgorod made sorties into Finland, which were strongly resisted. The Novgorod Chronicles and contemporary Swedish accounts give a confused picture of raids and counter attacks across territory in which there were no clear demarcation lines. Whilst the Russians were preoccupied with the Mongol invasions the Swedes were able to push eastward to the Neva. However, Alexander Nevski, Prince 20 Finland and Sweden of Novgorod, held them on the line of the Neva in 1240 and went on to defeat the Teutonic knights in Estonia.

The Poles soon became unpopular in Russia and Sigismund7 s victory proved to be hollow. Within a year, de la Gardie's armies were advancing in Inkeri. Between 1611 and 1613 the fortresses of Kakisalmi, Novgorod, Ladoga and Tikhvin in the area between Lakes Ladoga and Ilmen; and Kopore, Jama and Gdov, which lay along the Estonian frontier between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Peipus, all fell to the Swedes. Gustavus Adolphus arrived in person on the Russian front in 1614, having won a breathing space in the war with Denmark by the Peace of Knared in 1613.

A short history of Finland Bishop Thomas, another Englishman, came to Finland from Uppsala in 1220, shortly after the responsibility for the Church in Finland was transferred by the Papacy from the Danish See of Lund. Although nominally under the authority of Uppsala during Thomas's episcopacy (1220-45), t n e Church in Finland was in fact virtually autonomous, Under the direct authority of Rome. The Finnish Church became independent of the Swedish civil power in matters concerning taxation and the discipline of the clergy.

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